Her death on 24 June 1768 at the age of 65 was a huge blow to the French monarchy. Marie was twenty-two years old and Louis fifteen. Although few traces of her 42 years at the Palace remain—most were wiped out as a result of the changes wrought by Marie-Antoinette—the wife of King Louis XV nevertheless made her mark through the art she commissioned and the private chambers she created. Marie's private circle of friends was completed with the addition of President Hénault (her Surintendant since 1753) and Comte d'Argenson, whom she had asked not to address her with her title and with whom she also consulted when she wished to have a pension or a promotion given to a protegé. Louis XV had been very impatient to marry her, was reportedly flattered to have a twenty two-year old wife at his age, and refused to allow any criticism of her appearance. Her “colourist”, Etienne Jeaurat, guided her paintbrush for 15 years, and she was advised by Jean-Baptiste Oudry. by Scott Mehl. Posts about Marie Leszczyńska written by liamfoley63. Anne and Amelia of Great Britain, who were considered with the understanding that they would convert to the Catholic faith upon marriage, were favored by the Duke of Bourbon and Madame de Prie because it was supported by their political financiers, the firm of Paris Brothers Joseph Paris Duverney. Stanislaus unsuccessfully tried to arrange a marriage for her with the Count of Charolais, brother of the Duke of Bourbon. Unlike her elder siblings, she was not raised at Versailles, but rather at the Abbey of Fontevraud, where she remained until she was 15. The doors were locked to ensure secrecy and the duke presented the king with a report from their ambassador in Rome which blamed Fleury for the French failure in a dispute with the Pope. Marie Leszczyńska, in full Marie-Catherine Leszczyńska, Polish Maria Karolina Leszczyńska, (born June 23, 1703, Breslau, Silesia—died June 24, 1768, Versailles, France), queen consort of King Louis XV of France (ruled 1715–74). [5], While her mother and grandmother Anna Leszczyńska (1660–1727) reportedly suffered from a certain degree of bitterness over their exile and loss of position which worsened their relationship with Stanislaus, whom they occasionally blamed for their exile, Marie, on contrast, was close to her father and spent a lot of time conversing with him, though she was evidently of a more rational nature: evidently, Marie "possessed the gift of suffering in silence and of never wearying others with her troubles", and was said to have developed "a profound and intense piety" which gave "to her youthful mind the maturity of a woman who no longer demands happiness". Marie Louise Thérèse Victoire was born on 11 May 1733 and was known as Madame Quatrième as her birth happened shortly after the death of Marie Louise. [4] However, when the list of 17 (including Barbara of Portugal, Princess Charlotte Amalie of Denmark, Elisabeth Therese of Lorraine and Enrichetta d'Este) was further reduced to four, the preferred choices presented numerous problems. Indeed, one of the rooms in her private apartment was laid out as a studio. Cambridge University Press (2004). Katarzyna was born on September 3 1680, in POZNAN, Pologne. [5], The formal proposal was made on 2 April 1725. Norrhem, Svante (2007). Louise Julie de Mailly was followed by Pauline Félicité de Mailly (1739), Marie Anne de Mailly (1742) and Diane Adélaïde de Mailly (1742). Marie played some part as a cultural patron. The last two were the sisters of the Duke of Bourbon, Henriette-Louise and Therese-Alexandrine, whom the King himself refused to marry because of the disapproval of Cardinal Fleury. Marie Leszczyńska, daughter of the deposed King of Poland, married Louis XV in 1725 thanks to the influence of the Duke of Bourbon. [5] There were rumours before the wedding that the bride […] 1747 - Marie Leszczyńska by Charles-André van Loo. [4] This incident led to Cardinal Fleury categorizing queen Marie as his opponent, and his decision to oust the ministry of the Duke of Bourbon. [4] [4] Like her mother, Marie maintained a political correspondence with Margareta Gyllenstierna, the spouse of Arvid Horn, after she had made her acquaintance during her stay in Sweden. Marie Leszczyńska died on 24 June 1768 at the age of 65. In all, Marie had 10 live children, seven of whom survived to adulthood. [4] Her political activity after 1726 was limited to asking Louis XV to grant a pension or a promotion to a friend, and she often used Cardinal Fleury as a mediator to achieve this.[4]. However the Infanta was still a child, and could not be expected to conceive for several years; while Louis XV, being fifteen, had already hit puberty. The lovers of Louis were often given positions in the court of Marie, in order for them to have a permanent access and official excuse to remain at court, which placed Marie in a difficult position. She was born in Trzebnica (German: Trebnitz) in Lower Silesia, the year before her father was made king of Poland by Charles XII of Sweden, who had invaded the country in 1704. [4] After the war, her father was given the Duchy of Lorraine because he was the father-in-law of the king of France, and the Duchy became part of France after the death of her father who became Duke of Lorraine, thus making herself indirectly useful in the political arena. Once she befriended Bourbon, her path to being Louis’s wife became easier. David Bodanis: Passionate Minds: Emilie du Chatelet, Voltaire, and the Great Love Affair of the Enlightenment (2007), Alexander J. Nemeth: Voltaire's Tormented Soul. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, Queen Marie in circa 1740 by Louis Tocqué, https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Marie_Leszczyńska&oldid=7120750, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. Finally, Madame de Pompadour was presented at court in 1745, and was given such an important and influential position at court until her death in 1764, that she somewhat eclipsed the queen. Kept out of serious business and not held in particularly high regard in the Court, the Queen devoted her energies to the convent she founded in the town of Versailles for the education of poor girls. Devoid of political connections, his daughter was viewed by the French as being free from the burden of international alliances. Cardinal Fleury, however, was much more displeased, and decided that until the queen had given birth to a son, she would not be allowed to accompany the king on his trips but stay at Versailles. She had enjoyed great popularity among the public. in Swedish. Marie Leszczyńska was previously married to Louis XV of France (1725 - 1768). Queen Marie maintained the role and reputation of a simple and dignified Catholic queen. The Duke of d'Argensson had already left a favorable report of her, and the groundwork had been done. Marie Leszczyńska : biography 23 June 1703 – 24 June 1768 The announcement of the wedding was not received well as the royal court; as the father of Marie had been a monarch for only a short time, she was thought to be a poor choice. [3] Zweibrücken then passed to a cousin of his. [4] The engagement between Louis XV and the Spanish Infanta was broken, and the latter was sent back to Spain, much to the chagrin of the Spanish. She was the longest serving Queen consort of France. Wahlström & Widstrand (1947), Clarissa Campbell Orr: Queenship in Europe 1660-1815: The Role of the Consort. The 6 May 1725, Marie was forced to undergo a medical examination, which ruled out epilepsy and also gave reassuring reports about her menstruation and ability to procreate. [4], She accepted that her courtiers were appointed because of rank rather than personal preference, and conversed politely with those who were in attendance. [6], Queen Marie eventually did manage to win the respect of the court nobility by her strict adherence to court etiquette, which made her opinion at least formally important. Maria was on a list of 99 eligible European princesses to marry the young king. In the end, the 21-year-old Marie Leszczyńska, daughter of Stanisław I, the deposed king of Poland, was finally chosen. Marie Leszczyńska spoke several languages and was highly cultured, with a great interest in the creative occupations, literature, music and art – especially painting. Lundh-Eriksson, Nanna: Hedvig Eleonora. Maria Karolina Zofia Felicja Leszczyńska (h. Wieniawa)[1] was the second daughter of Stanislaus I Leszczyński and his wife, Catherine Opalińska. After her marriage, her appointed court consisted of a great number of followers of the Duke of Bourbon, among them Madame de Prie herself, the Duchess de Béthune, and the Marquise de Matignon, who were among her twelve ladies-in-waiting or dame du palais; the Duke's own sister, Marie Anne de Bourbon (1697–1741), became her Surintendante de la Maison the la Reine and Paris de Verney was appointed as her secretary. This led to a crisis, when the king gave Bourbon the choice to either expel Madame de Prie and Paris de Verney or be removed from his post of prime minister. [4] At this point, there were already negotiations of marriage between Marie and the Duke of Bourbon. Despite her misgivings as a mother, Marie Marie Leszczyńska was very popular among her subjects and her death on June 24, 1768 was a huge blow to the King and the French monarchy who was already reeling behind unpopularity due to the excesses of the court and plight of the peasants. In 1733, he entered into his first infidelity, with Louise Julie de Mailly; until 1737, this relationship was not official, and she was known at court as the Fair Unknown. Marie Leszczyńska vécut les vingt dernières années de sa vie à Versailles, entourée d'un cercle restreint de courtisans : « La maison de la reine était formée de gens d’esprit, de conditions sociales diverses, sur le modèle des fameux salons parisiens si caractéristiques de l’époque ». She was buried at the Basilica of St Denis and her heart was entombed at the Church of Notre-Dame-de-Bonsecours in Nancy (Lorraine). Marie Leszczyńska, daughter of the deposed King of Poland, married Louis XV in 1725 thanks to the influence of the Duke of Bourbon. Stanislaus appealed to the Regent of France, the Duke of Orléans, and the Duke of Lorraine for help, with the Queen of Sweden acting as his mediator.[4]. Cardinal Fleury accepted the choice as Marie posed no threat to him because of her lack of connections, while the Duke of Bourbon and Madame de Prie, precisely because she lacked any personal power base, expected her to be indebted to them for her position. The king was reportedly delighted, stating that after it had been said that he could not be a father, he had suddenly become the father of two. On their instruction, the queen called on the king to come to her chambers, where the Duke de Bourbon was present. Part II. Tag Archives: Queen Marie Leszczyńska May 10, 1774: Death of Louis XV, King of France and Navarre. Relationships. She valued the ritualized pomp and court presentations in order to increase her dignity and win the respect of the court nobility, which was necessary because she had no prestigious dynastic connections of birth and was thus initially seen as low born by them:[4] her successor as queen, Marie Antoinette, was to ignore many of these rules, and once pointed out, that in contrast to her predecessor queen Marie Leszczyńska, it was not necessary for her to enhance her status and dignity, since her dynastic status was evident by birth, and that she could therefore afford to relax etiquette without losing respect. The daughter of King Stanislaus I of Poland and Catherine Opalińska, her 42-year service was the longest of any queen in French history. She was buried at the Basilica of St Denis, and her heart was entombed at the Church of Notre-Dame-de-Bonsecours in Nancy (Lorraine). The marriage by proxy took place on 15 August 1725 in the Cathedral of Strasbourg, Louis XV represented by his cousin the Duke of Orléans, Louis le Pieux. [4], Marie reconciled with Cardinal Fleury, whom she kept contact with through letters and humbly entrusted to advise her how to behave in order to please the king. In France, she was referred to as Marie Leczinska. 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She was not credited with any personal significance and not given much personal attention outside of her ceremonial role as queen. It was also her favorite portrait, which she had reproduced to give to friends. In June 1726, Fleury convinced the king to deprive the Duke of Bourbon of his ministry. These lands were parallel to the confiscated Polish properties of Stanislaus. The Duke of Bourbon and Madame de Prie began negotiations for the immediate marriage of the King to Marie. [4] After Louis fell seriously ill, there was a great fear that he would die before he had time to have an heir to the throne. source: Wikipedia. [4] Cardinal Fleury himself favored a match with Princess Charlotte of Hesse-Rheinfels-Rotenburg, which was supported by the maternal grandfather of Louis XV, The King of Sardinia, through his spy the Princess of Carignan, Maria Vittoria of Savoy. Marie married Louis Xv of France on September 4 1725, at age 22. [4] The marriage negotiations, however, were soon overshadowed when a marriage for King Louis XV was given priority. Maria Leszczyńska, Queen of France. Bourbon asked the king if they should write a reply, which the King refused without the presence of Fleury. This was an undesirable prospect for the Duke of Bourbon, who himself would in fact have preferred that the throne should pass to the Spanish line rather than to the Orléans line. [5], Marie was not described as a beauty; instead her characteristics in the marriage market were stated as those of being pleasant, well-educated, and graceful in manner and movement. Madame de Prie immediately enlisted the queen to speak to the king in favor of Bourbon. In honour of him, several of the queen's grandsons received the name Stanislaus (or Stanislas in French) at their christening. Memorial; Photos ; Flowers ; Polish Royalty, Queen consort of King Louis XV. Louis and Marie first met on the eve of their wedding, which took place on 5 September 1725, at the Château de Fontainebleau. She had been placed there initially because she was a Catholic princess and therefore fulfilled the minimum criteria, but was removed early on when the list was reduced from 99 to 17, for being too poor. During the War of the Polish Succession in 1733–1736, she supported her father's candidacy to the Polish throne, and upon her father's demand,[4] she did her best to encourage Cardinal Fleury to support her father's candidacy, though she herself expressed to the Cardinal that she had never wished for the war and that she was an innocent cause of it because the French wished to enhance her dynastic status. [5] Marie made a good impression upon the public from the beginning, such as when she handed out largesse on her way to her wedding in Fontainebleau. Ironically, the hopeless political career of king Stanislaus was eventually the reason why his daughter Maria was chosen as the bride of King Louis XV of France. As queen, Marie Leszczyńska performed her ceremonial role in strict accordance with formal court etiquette and regularly and punctually fulfilled all representational duties that the court life at Versailles demanded of her. The family lived a modest life in a large town house at the expense of the French Regent. In the end, the 21-year-old Marie Leszczyńska, daughter of Stanislaus I, the deposed king of Poland, was finally chosen.The marriage was celebrated in September 1725 when the king was 15. Marie Leszczyńska (Trzebnica, 23 June 1703 – Versailles, 24 June 1768) was a queen of France as wife of Louis XV. When her first daughter-in-law died in 1746, the queen, very fond and loving of her only son, opposed the selection of his next spouse, the Duchess Marie-Josèphe of Saxony, because she was the daughter of her father's rival, Frederick Augustus Wettin of Saxony, King August III of Poland. Born Maria Karolina Zofia Felicja Leszczyńska h. Wieniawa, she was the second daughter of Stanisław Leszczyński and his wife Katarzyna Opalińska. Her family sincerely grieved her death. She had nine children. Her children all regarded her as a role model of virtue, particularly the daughters, though Marie herself reportedly was not noted to show much affection toward them, being phlegmatic in her nature. This is the correct spelling of the surname in modern Polish; other spellings are also used in English and French. According to our records, Marie Leszczyńska is possibly single. [5] Once, for example, she could find no other way to entertain him than to suggest him to kill the flies in the window panes. In 1714, Charles XII gave them permission to live in his fiefdom of Zweibrücken in the Holy Roman Empire, where they were supported by the income of Zweibrücken: they lived there until the death of Charles XII in 1718. The reason were two incidents, both of which insulted the queen: During one long night of gambling, Voltaire's lover, Emilie du Chatelet, lost a fortune at the queen's gambling table, during which Voltaire whispered to her in English that she had been cheated. Date of birth/death: 17 March 1685 7 November 1766 Location of birth/death: Paris: Paris: Work period: 1700s-1750s: Work location: Paris Authority control: Q277738; VIAF: 61708615; ISNI: 0000 0000 8141 1717; ULAN: 500120754; LCCN: n90662682; MusicBrainz: b25ab8a0-a7d3-45a4-846f-1b1b0473e950; WorldCat; Title: English: Marie Leszczyńska, Queen of France, Reading the Bible … There were long-ongoing negotiations of a marriage between Marie and the now widowed Duke of Bourbon: Madame de Prie favored the match, as she did not perceive the reputedly unattractive Marie as a threat to her. [4] However, though she was careful to always fulfill her representational role, she never participated in court life outside of what was necessary to fulfill her ceremonial duties, and when they were done she preferred to retire to her private apartments with an intimate circle of friends. This insulted the queen and led to the banishment of Voltaire from court.[8]. Marie Leszczyńska appears in 1 issues View all The Story of Sex: A Graphic History Through the Ages. That same year, the young king fell ill and, fearing the consequences of the unmarried king dying without an heir, the Duc suggested getting the young King married as soon as possible. Save to Suggest Edits. Tags. In France, she was referred to as Marie Leczinska. The announcement of the wedding was not received well at the royal court. Marie Leszczyńska 1703 1768 Marie Leszczyńska in Biographical Summaries of Notable People. [4] She and the clergy supported the idea of the king exiling his mistress Marie Anne de Mailly and her sister and the idea that the king should make a public regret for his adultery, but this did not improve their marriage.[5]. [4] After the 1726 crisis and until the birth of a dauphin in 1729, Cardinal Fleury and the Princess of Carignano made long running preparations to replace Marie, preferably with Charlotte of Hesse-Rheinfels-Rotenburg, if she should die in childbirth. [4], Marie had been given advice by her father to always loyally stand by the Duke of Bourbon, to whom she owed her marriage and position, and it was a favor to the Duke that Marie made her first attempt to interfere in politics. Kept out of serious business and not held in particularly high regard in the Court, the Queen devoted her energies to the convent she founded in the town of Versailles for the education of poor girls. During this time France was a powerful nation and often in conflict with Austria; the Austrian ambassador to France, Florimond Claude, Comte de Mercy-Argenteau, was said to have been romantically involved with the Queen, but this seems highly unlikely and was disregarded as court gossip. She functioned as an example of Catholic piety and was famed for her generosity to the poor and needy through her philanthropy, which made her very popular among the public her entire life as queen.[4]. She was the grandmother of Louis XVI, Louis XVIII and Charles X of France. [4] The princess' advice was that as Queen of France, it was Marie's duty was not to involve herself in political intrigues and plots, but to act as an example of virtue and piety and a role model of a "Catholic consort of the Most Christian King". Marie Leszczyńska (Trzebnica, 23 June 1703 – Versailles, 24 June 1768) was a queen consort of France. In these complicated disputes over the choice of a royal marriage partner, Marie Leszczyńska eventually emerged as a choice acceptable to both the party of the Duke of Bourbon and Madame de Prie, as well as the party of Cardinal Fleury, mainly because she was politically uncontroversial and lacked any of the alliances which could harm either party. [5], Though not regarded as ugly, Marie was seen as plain with not much more than her fresh and healthy complexion in her favor; this faded due to her many pregnancies, but her piety prevented her from consenting to indulge in vanity in order make herself attractive. She was not the first choice on the list. After her marriage, her appointed court consisted of a great number of followers of the Duke of Bourbon, among them Madame de Prie herself, the Duchess de Béthune, and the Marquise de Matignon, who were among her twelve ladies-in-waiting or dame du palais; the Duke's own sister, Marie Anne de Bourbon (1697–1741), became her Surintendante de la Maison the la Reine and Paris de Verney was appointed as her secretary. Marie was the benefactor of the painter Jean-Marc Nattier, whom she commissioned in 1748 to paint the last portrait she ever sat for, an unusual one as it was informal. Marie Leszczyńska is a member of the following lists: People from Trzebnica, 1703 births and Burials at the Basilica of St Denis. Marie Leszczyńska (Trzebnica, 23 June 1703 – Versailles, 24 June 1768) was a queen of France as wife of Louis XV. They had eleven children: Queen Marie never managed to acquire any political influence. She regarded the first official mistress, Louise Julie de Mailly, as the most hurtful because she was the first one, but she disliked Marie Anne de Mailly on a more personal level because Marie Anne was haughty and insolent. A Taste of Marie Leszczyńska is presented in the Dauphine’s Apartments, which have been reopened for the occasion. View Source: Share. [4] [5] She befriended Orleans’s old chancellor, the comte d’Argenson, who promoted her to Louis’s new regent, the Duc of Bourbon. [4] Louis George, Margrave of Baden-Baden as well as the third Prince of Baden were suggested, but these negotiations fell through because of her insufficient dowry. [5] In her behavior she was described as incurably shy and timid of her husband; she considered it her duty to show him grateful reverence and was not able to relax enough to entertain him or flirt with him. Her dislike of the match was known but ignored, as she had no dynastic connections. Queen Marie of France, pained by Carle van Loo, c1747. [4] Though she had simple habits - her apartments at Versailles were not redecorated after 1737 - her favorite game, cavagnole, often placed her in debt, and the King was normally unwilling to pay these off for her. The nobility and the court looked upon the future queen as an upstart intruder, the ministers as a cause to diplomatic trouble with Spain and Russia, whose princesses had been refused in favor of Marie, and the general public was also reportedly initially dissatisfied with the fact that France would gain "from this marriage neither glory nor honor, riches nor alliances. Background. In 1723, the Duke of Bourbon had become the Regent of France during the minority of Louis XV. [3] During the escape, Marie was separated from the rest of her family; she was later found with her nurse hiding in a crib in a stable, although another version claims it was actually a cave in an old mineshaft. A fan depicting the marriage of Marie Leszczyńska and Louis XV on 5th September 1725 I have always liked a good wedding, especially one that goes on for days and involves a palace! Marie died at Versailles on 24 June 1768, six years before her husband. Marie was, finally, chosen because she was a healthy adult Catholic princess ready to procreate immediately after the wedding. Marie Leszczyńska : biography 23 June 1703 – 24 June 1768 This is the correct spelling of the surname in modern Polish; various other spellings are also used in English and French. of France. Cardinal Fleury easily prevented the British match because of religious reasons. Queen Marie never managed to develop political influence. This page was last changed on 24 September 2020, at 06:41. [4] In the marriage contract, the same terms were given to her as was previously to the Spanish Infanta, and she was thus guaranteed fifty thousand crowns for rings and jewelry, two hundred and fifty thousand crowns upon her wedding, and the further guarantee of an annual widow allowance of twenty thousand crowns.[5]. Marie was a devout Roman Catholic. [4] On 17 December 1725, the Duke of Bourbon, Madame de Prie, and Paris de Verney attempted to banish Cardinal de Fleury through a plot. Her death on 24 June 1768, at the age of 65 was a huge blow to the French Monarchy. [4], Marie was given an allowance of 100.000 livres for pleasure, charity and gambling, a sum which was in reality often irregularly paid and also insufficient, as she was often in debt. [4] The cavalry regiment provided by the Regent for the protection of the family included the officer Marquis de Courtanvaux, who fell in love with Marie and asked the Regent to be created a duke in order to ask for her hand; but when the Regent refused, the marriage became impossible because of his lack of rank. Marie, Caroline, Sophie, Félicie de BOURBON (born LESZCZYNSKA) was born on month day 1703, at birth place, to Stanisław 1er LESZCYNSKI and Katarzyna (Catherine) LESZCYNSKA (born OPALINSKA). The long-awaited Dauphin, Louis, was born on 4 September 1729 to the immense relief of the country, whose royal family had a history of failing to establish a secure male line of succession. Mairiage. Maria Karolina Zofia Felicja Leszczyńska was a French queen by marriage to Louis XV, King of the French. Should that happen, the throne would pass to the Orléans line. Marie was baptized on month day 1703, at baptism place. Although she rarely was involved in politics, she stepped in for her husband at court festivities at Versaille, due to his absence. [5], In parallel with this, Louise Julie de Mailly was officially recognized as the king's royal mistress and favorite at court, and the relationship between the king and queen discontinued in all but name; though they continued to perform their ceremonial roles side by side, the king paid only purely ceremonial visits to her rooms and no longer participated in her card games, and the court, wary of her loss of the king's affections, only attended to her when court representation required. Queen Marie’s death at the age of 65 is a disaster for the monarchy. She was the longest serving Queen consort of France. 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